miRNA vs siRNA vs shRNA | the difference
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miRNA, siRNA, shRNA mechanism difference- This lecture explains about the difference between miRNA, siRNA, shRNA.
miRNA - micro RNA
These are RNAs expressed naturally in cells. They start as regions within an RNA strand that form hairpins. When these hairpins are cleaved by the drosha enzyme they fform free stem-loops of RNA with an overhanging end. Cleaved again by dicer, the loop is excised and a duplexes of RNA about 21 bases in length with overhanging ends is released. These usually suppress translation of RNA strands bearing partially complementary targets in their 3'-UTRs.
siRNA - short interfering RNA
These are short synthetic oligos, duplexes of RNA about 21 bases in length with overhanging ends. siRNA is introduced into cells where one strand of the siRNA will complex with proteins (including argonaute) to form RISC (RNA induced silencing complex). The oligo then cleaves target sites in single-stranded RNA that have at least partial complementarity with the siRNA sequence, where complementarity is especially critical with a ~7 base region of the siRNA called the seed sequence. When an siRNA interats with a target sequence with slightly less complementarity, the translation of the target sequence is suppressed. This can lead to widespread gene modulation by a single siRNA sequence. (see: Short interfering RNAs can induce unexpected and divergent changes in the levels of untargeted proteins in mammalian cells.
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